|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Note 11 – Income Taxes
The following table sets forth the expense or (benefit) for income taxes:
Thefollowing table sets forth reconciliations of the income tax expense at the statutory federal income tax rate to actual expense based on our loss before income taxes:
During the year ended December 31, 2022, valuation allowances on deferred tax assets that are not anticipated to be realized increased by $portion was recorded in final purchase accounting. During the year ended December 31, 2021, valuation allowances on deferred tax assets that were not anticipated to be realized increased by $3.6 million of which $0.2 million was recorded in purchase accounting and the remainder of $3.4 million was recorded to deferred expense.
Our deferred tax valuation allowances are primarily the result of uncertainties regarding the future realization of recorded tax benefits on tax losses. The measurement of deferred tax assets is reduced by a valuation allowance if, based upon available evidence, it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will not be realized. We have evaluated the realizability of our deferred tax assets in each jurisdiction by assessing the adequacy of expected taxable income, including the reversal of existing temporary differences, historical and projected operating results, and the availability of prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. Based on this analysis, we have determined that the valuation allowances recorded as of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 are appropriate.
We have deferred tax assets related to U.S. federal tax and state tax carryforwards for net operating losses (“NOL”) in the amount of $58.9 million. The majority of U.S. federal NOL carryforwards are carried forward indefinitely. Federal NOLs generated after 2017 have an indefinite carryforward and are only available to offset 80 percent of taxable income beginning in 2021. U.S. state NOL carryforwards expire at various dates of which the majority begin to expire in 2039.
We are not currently under examination for any of the major jurisdictions where we conduct business as of December 31, 2022; however, all of our tax years remain subject to examination. Our management does not believe there are significant uncertain tax positions in 2022 and as a result we do not expect any cash payments in the next 12 months; however, uncertain tax positions related to potential penalties in the amount of $30,000 was recorded in connection with business combinations during the year ended December 31, 2020. A reserve for potential penalties for $0.1 million that was established in 2021 was reversed in 2022 as a result of the Internal Revenue Service’s dismissal of the matters. There was no interest related to uncertain tax positions in or .
We paid less than $0.1 million for income taxes, net of refunds received, in certain state and national jurisdictions during each of the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
The Inflation Reduction Act (“IRA”) was enacted on August 16, 2022. The IRA introduced new provisions including a 15% corporate alternative minimum tax for certain large corporations that have at least an average of $1 billion adjusted financial statement income over a consecutive -tax-year period and a 1% excise tax surcharge on stock repurchases. The IRA is applicable for tax years beginning after December 31, 2022 and had no benefit to our consolidated financial statements for any of the periods presented, and we do not expect it to have a direct material impact on our future results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows.